B uilding pertama berevolusi dari dinamika antara kebutuhan (tempat berlindung, keamanan, ibadah, dll) dan sarana (bahan bangunan yang tersedia dan keterampilan petugas). Seiring berkembangnya budaya manusia dan pengetahuan mulai diformalkan melalui tradisi dan praktik lisan, bangunan menjadi kerajinan, dan “arsitektur” adalah nama yang diberikan pada versi kerajinan yang paling formal dan dihormati.

Secara umum diasumsikan bahwa kesuksesan arsitektur adalah hasil dari proses trial and error, dengan percobaan yang semakin sedikit dan replikasi yang lebih banyak karena hasil prosesnya terbukti semakin memuaskan. Apa yang disebut arsitektur vernakular terus diproduksi di banyak belahan dunia. Memang, bangunan vernakular membuat sebagian besar dunia dibangun yang dialami orang setiap hari. Permukiman manusia awal kebanyakan pedesaan. Karena surplus produksi, ekonomi mulai berkembang sehingga mengakibatkan urbanisasi sehingga menciptakan daerah perkotaan yang tumbuh dan berkembang dengan sangat cepat dalam beberapa kasus, seperti Anatolia dan Mohenjo Daro dari Peradaban Lembah Indus di Pakistan modern.

“Sebuah rumah di Jepang dianggap berbeda dari satu di Eropa. Ini lebih sementara, duduk lebih ringan di tanah”

Mereka tumbuh dari kondisi yang keras karena hancurnya peperangan, masa depan akibat bencana, gempa bumi yang berulang, kekurangan lahan namun kemudian sering memilih untuk menambahkan tantangan sukarela mereka sendiri. Ada rumah-rumah di mana kamar dipisahkan oleh halaman, sehingga Anda harus membiarkan diri Anda menuju cuaca untuk melewati satu sama lain, atau di mana rongsokan yang tidak dapat digunakan dimasukkan ke lokasi yang sudah sempit, atau di mana harapan normal akan privasi, kenyamanan, kenyamanan, Rumah tangga, kecantikan dan tempat berlindung, dengan pertimbangan hati-hati namun dengan alasan tidak sepenuhnya dijelaskan, ditantang.

Then there are the full-sized constructions, the hut-on-stilts and the white boxes, one the work of the idiosyncratic reviver of traditional craft, the other a recreation of the house of 2005 by the Pritzker prize winner. The latter is conceived as a series of small pavilions connected by courts, recreated here with books, music, films and personal objects recalling the life of its owner. Lighting rises and falls in imitation of the cycle of day and night, accelerated to 60 minutes. When it is darker you can see films projected against the exterior of the building, which is something he likes to do. It is as immersive as the other material is restrained, creating an alternate version of the original rather than a perfect simulacrum.

The Olympic Stadium, Berlin, Germany

The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. Hindu temple architecture, which developed around the 3rd century BCE, is governed by concepts laid down in the Shastras, and is concerned with expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many Asian countries, pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape.

With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and lighting.

In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture.

We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us.

Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome.

Yo Photo of a Skyscraper

A system architecture can comprise system components that will work together to implement the overall system. There have been efforts to formalize languages to describe system architecture, collectively these are called architecture description languages (ADLs).

Business architecture is defined as “a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands.” People who develop and maintain business architecture are known as business architects.

To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art’s sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality”. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology.

There was also the rise of the “gentleman architect” who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created in the Neo Gothic or Scottish Baronial styles.

Forests were the first temples of God and in forests men grasped their first idea of architecture.

Since the 1980s, as the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of structural systems, services, energy and technologies), the field of architecture became multi-disciplinary with specializations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods. In addition, there has been an increased separation of the ‘design’ architect from the ‘project’ architect who ensures that the project meets the required standards and deals with matters of liability.

Golden Gate Bridge, USA

The preparatory processes for the design of any large building have become increasingly complicated, and require preliminary studies of such matters as durability, sustainability, quality, money, and compliance with local laws.

We need houses as we need clothes, architecture stimulates fashion. It is like hunger and thirst you need them both.

A large structure can no longer be the design of one person but must be the work of many. Modernism and Postmodernism have been criticised by some members of the architectural profession who feel that successful architecture is not a personal, philosophical, or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it has to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to create liveable environments, with the design process being informed by studies of behavioral, environmental, and social sciences. Cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind. One of the main goals of a cognitive architecture is to summarize the various results of cognitive psychology in a comprehensive computer model.

Photo of a skyscraper, building, architecture

There has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles.

Environmental sustainability has become a mainstream issue, with profound effect on the architectural profession. Many developers, those who support the financing of buildings, have become educated to encourage the facilitation of environmentally sustainable design, rather than solutions based primarily on immediate cost. Major examples of this can be found in passive solar building design, greener roof designs, biodegradable materials, and more attention to a structure’s energy usage.

Arsitektur enterprise menerapkan prinsip dan praktik arsitektur untuk memandu organisasi melalui perubahan bisnis, informasi, proses, dan teknologi yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan strategi mereka. Praktik ini memanfaatkan berbagai aspek perusahaan untuk mengidentifikasi, memotivasi, dan mencapai perubahan ini. “Praktisi arsitektur enterprise, arsitek perusahaan, bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan analisis struktur bisnis dan proses dan sering diminta untuk menarik kesimpulan dari informasi tersebut. Dikumpulkan untuk memenuhi tujuan arsitektur perusahaan: efektivitas, efisiensi, kelincahan, dan daya tahan.


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